Arquivo da tag: Violência sexual

A new DNA study offers insight into the horrific story of the trans-Atlantic slave trade (CNN)

By Harmeet Kaur, CNN

Updated 1438 GMT (2238 HKT) July 26, 2020 – original article

This drawing of the Liverpool slave ship Brooks was commissioned by abolitionists to depict the inhumanity of the slave trade by showing how Africans were crammed below decks.

This drawing of the Liverpool slave ship Brooks was commissioned by abolitionists to depict the inhumanity of the slave trade by showing how Africans were crammed below decks.

(CNN) Much of what we know about the horrors of slavery in the Americas comes from historical records. But new research shows that evidence of the slave trade’s atrocities can also be found in the DNA of African Americans.

A study conducted by the consumer genetics company 23andMe, published Thursday in theAmerican Journal of Human Genetics, offers some new insight into the consequences of the trans-Atlantic slave trade, from the scale at which enslaved Black women were raped by their White masters to the less-documented slave trade that occurred within the Americas.

It’s one of the largest studies of its kind, thanks in part to the massive database of 23andMe customers that researchers were able to recruit consenting participants from.

The authors compiled genetic data from more than 50,000 people from the Americas, Western Europe and Atlantic Africa, and compared it against the historical records of where enslaved people were taken from and where they were enslaved. Together, the data and records tell a story about the complicated roots of the African diaspora in the Americas.

For the most part, the DNA was consistent with what the documents show. But, the study authors said, there were some notable differences.

Here’s some of what they found, and what it reveals about the history of slavery.

It shows the legacy of rape against enslaved women

The enslaved workers who were taken from Africa and brought to the Americas were disproportionately male. Yet, genetic data shows that enslaved women contributed to gene pools at a higher rate.

In the US and parts of the Caribbean colonized by the British, African women contributed to the gene pool about 1.5 to 2 times more than African men. In Latin America, that rate was even higher. Enslaved women contributed to the gene pool in Central America, the Latin Caribbean and parts of South America about 13 to 17 times more.

To the extent that people of African descent in the Americas had European ancestry, they were more likely to have White fathers in their lineage than White mothers in all regions except the Latin Caribbean and Central America.

What that suggests: The biases in the gene pool toward enslaved African women and European men signals generations of rape and sexual exploitation against enslaved women at the hands of White owners, authors Steven Micheletti and Joanna Mountain wrote in an email to CNN.

That enslaved Black women were often raped by their masters “is not a surprise” to any Black person living in the US, says Ravi Perry, a political science professor at Howard University. Numerous historical accounts confirm this reality, as the study’s authors note.

But the regional differences between the US and Latin America are what’s striking.

The US and other former British colonies generally forced enslaved people to have children in order to maintain workforces — which could explain why the children of an enslaved woman were more likely to have an enslaved father. Segregation in the US could also be a factor, the authors theorized.

By contrast, the researchers point to the presence of racial whitening policies in several Latin American countries, which brought in European immigrants with the aim of diluting the African race. Such policies, as well as higher mortality rates of enslaved men, could explain the disproportionate contributions to the gene pool by enslaved women, the authors wrote.

It sheds light on the intra-American slave trade

Far more people in the US and Latin America have Nigerian ancestry than expected, given what historical records show about the enslaved people that embarked from ports along present-day Nigeria into the Americas, according to the study.

What that suggests: This is most likely a reflection of the intercolonial slave trade that occurred largely from the British Caribbean to other parts of the Americas between 1619 and 1807, Micheletti and Mountain wrote.

Once enslaved Africans arrived in the Americas, many were put on new ships and transported to other regions.”

Documented intra-American voyages indicate that the vast majority of enslaved people were transported from the British Caribbean to other parts of the Americas, presumably to maintain the slave economy as transatlantic slave trading was increasingly prohibited,” the authors wrote in the study.

When enslaved people from Nigeria who came into the British Caribbean were traded into other areas, their ancestry spread to regions that didn’t directly trade with that part of Africa.

It shows the dire conditions enslaved people faced

Conversely, ancestry from the region of Senegal and the Gambia is underrepresented given the proportion of enslaved people who embarked from there, Micheletti and Mountain said.

The reasons for that are grim.

What that suggests: One possible explanation the authors gave for the low prevalence of Senegambian ancestry is that over time, more and more children from the region were forced onto ships to make the journey to the Americas.

The unsanitary conditions in the holds of the ship led to malnourishment and illness, the authors wrote, meaning that less of them survived.

Another possibility is the dangerous conditions that enslaved people from the region faced once they arrived. A significant proportion of Senegambians were taken to rice plantations in the US, which were often rampant with malaria, Micheletti and Mountain said.

The study has limitations

The 23andMe study is significant in how it juxtaposes genetic data with historical records, as well as in the size of its dataset, experts who weren’t involved in the study told CNN.

“I’m not aware of anyone that has done such a comprehensive job of putting these things together, by a long shot,” said Simon Gravel, a human genetics professor at McGill University. “It’s really big progress.”

Still, he said, the research has its limitations.

In order to conduct their analysis, the scientists had to make “a lot of simplifications,” Gravel said. The researchers broke down African ancestry into four corresponding regions on the continent’s Atlantic Coast: Nigerian, Senegambian, Coastal West African and Congolese.”

That doesn’t tell you the whole story,” Gravel added, though he said more data is needed in the broader field of genomics for the researchers to drill down deeper.

Jada Benn Torres, a genetic anthropologist at Vanderbilt University, also said she would have liked to see a higher proportion of people from Africa included in the study. Out of the more than 50,000 participants, about 2,000 were from Africa. “

From the perspective of human evolutionary genetics, Africa is the most genetic diverse continent,” she wrote in an email to CNN. “In order to adequate capture existing variation, the sample sizes must be large.”

But both Gravel and Benn Torres called the study an exciting start that offers more information about the descendents of enslaved Africans.

And that, the researchers, said was what they set out to do.”

We hope this paper helps people in the Americas of African descent further understand where their ancestors came from and what they overcame,” Micheletti wrote.

“… To me, this is the point, to make a personal connection with the millions of people whose ancestors were forced from Africa into the Americas and to not forget what their ancestors had to endure.”

Veterinária espanhola denuncia tráfico de orangotangos para prostituição (Brasília em Pauta)

Postado por Simone de Moraes 05:54:00 27/02/2014 

Crédito : Reprodução

A prostituição de orangotangos é uma prática comum em alguns países asiáticos, sendo que muitos destes animais são enclausurados e sofrem abusos sexuais contínuos de várias pessoas, de acordo com a veterinária espanhola Karmele Llano, que trabalha na Borneo Orangutan Survival (BOS).

Llano, que há oito anos denunciou os abusos sofridos, no Bornéu, de um orangotango de 12 anos, chamada Pony, diz que a prostituição de orangotangos é comum em locais com a Tailândia, por exemplo.

“O caso de Pony não é isolado. Sabemos que na Tailândia é frequente ver bordéis a usarem fêmeas de orangotango como diversão sexual para os clientes”, explicou Llano à revista Taringa.

De acordo com a associação Orangutan Conservancy, há apenas 20 mil orangotangos no mundo. A ONG explica que estes se poderão extinguir em apenas 10 anos, caso continuem a ocorrer casos como estes – ou, por exemplo, combates de boxe entre estes animais.

No caso de Pony, ela foi descoberta completamente depilada, perfumada e com os lábios pintados. O animal estava acorrentado a uma cama, para que os clientes do bordel, na vila de Keremgpangi, pudessem abusar dela – de acordo com Llano, tratam-se sobretudo de trabalhadores da indústria madeireira e extracção de óleo de palma.

Porém, estes casos não ocorrem apenas na Ásia. Segundo noticia o La Gaceta, este tipo de práticas são também recorrentes em países onde a legislação em matéria de protecção dos direitos dos animais é inexistente. Inclusive na Europa.

Segundo o espanhol diariomascota, na Alemanha a legislação não comtempla como ilegal a prática de sexo com animais. Existem, por isso, pequenos bordéis, na sua maioria clandestinos, que se dedicam a este tipo de clientes com inclinações zoófilas

Prostituição e extincão

Orangotangos são encontrados apenas na Ásia , Sumatra e Bornéu. De acordo com a Associação Americana de orangotango Conservancy, 20.000 é o número estimado no momento e eles podem estar extintos em 10 anos . 

De acordo com um relatório da Fundação Orangotango, esta é uma das mais graves ameaças à sua sobrevivência , junto com a sua venda como animais de estimação, o que alimenta ainda mais o grande contrabando desses animais . Um tráfego que vem , apesar dos controles , para a Europa, a partir de uma rota através do Oriente Médio. Orangotangos são importados de outros países da Ásia , especialmente Taiwan , onde são utilizados principalmente como animais de estimação por famílias ricas.

Acontece também na Europa

Apesar de entender essas práticas como incivilizado ou característica de países com menor desenvolvimento e legislação para a protecção dos direitos, tanto humanos como animais ou ambientais , em muitos casos, elas são inexistente. O fato é que estas práticas também são comuns na Europa, como denuncia a diariomascota web na Alemanha, “a legislação não cobre sexo ilegal com os animais, não se destina a violar qualquer lei ou que envolve os ataque contra eles. Não sendo punido , nenhuma pessoa pode enfrentar consequências legais para isso, então você poderia dizer que a manutenção e relações com os animais é permitida”.

Há também pequenos bordéis clandestino envolvidos em tais práticas. Os bordéis são centros “especializados” em clientes que têm tendências zoofílicas.

Female Anthropologists Harassed (The Scientist)

[Why the photo of Maasai people? -RT]

A new survey finds a high incidence of sexual harassment and rape among women doing anthropological field work.

By Jef Akst | April 15, 2013

The Maasai tribe in Kenya. WIKIMEDIA, MATT CRYPTO

More than 20 percent of female bioanthropologists who took part in a new survey are victims of “physical sexual harassment or unwanted sexual contact” in the course of their scientific research, primarily at the hand of superior professional colleagues, even their own mentors.

After talking to a friend that had been raped by a colleague, anthropologist Kathryn Clancy of the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign decided to look into the matter further.  “It was like a slap in the face to learn that this was happening to my friends,” Clancy told ScienceInsider.

She began posting anonymous stories of sexual harassment, shared with her by her female colleagues, on the Scientific American blog Context and Variation. The stories began to draw comments of other researchers’ harassment stories. “This is definitely not limited to just my discipline,” Clancy told ScienceInsider—nor is it limited to females, she found.

To get a better handle on the frequency with which such harassment occurs, Clancy and colleagues conducted a (still ongoing) online survey, asking scientists to report on their field-work experiences. Preliminary results, presented Saturday (April 13) at the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA) annual meeting in Knoxville, Tennessee, indicated that about 30 percent of both men and women reported the occurrence of verbal abuse “regularly” or “frequently” at field sites. And 21 percent of women reported having experienced physical sexual harassment or unwanted sexual contact; one out of 23 men also reported such abuse.

Notably, fewer than 20 percent of the reported cases of harassment involved the local community; rather, most of the abuse came from other researchers, primarily those further along in their careers. But why are such experiences so rarely reported?

“Quitting a field site, not completing and publishing research, and/or loss of letters of recommendation can have potent consequences for academic careers,” collaborator Katie Hinde of Harvard University told ScienceInsider. “Taken together, these factors result in a particularly vulnerable population of victims and witnesses powerless to intervene. As a discipline, we need to recognize and remedy that an appreciable non-zero number of our junior colleagues, particularly women, are having to endure harassment and a hostile work environment in order to be scientists.”