Arquivo mensal: janeiro 2010

>AP: Bin Laden blasts US for climate change

The Associated Press
Friday, January 29, 2010; 7:46 AM

CAIRO — Al-Qaida leader Osama bin Laden has called for the world to boycott American goods and the U.S. dollar, blaming the United States and other industrialized countries for global warming, according to a new audiotape released Friday.

In the tape, broadcast in part on Al-Jazeera television, bin Laden warned of the dangers of climate change and says that the way to stop it is to bring “the wheels of the American economy” to a halt.

He blamed Western industrialized nations for hunger, desertification and floods across the globe, and called for “drastic solutions” to global warming, and “not solutions that partially reduce the effect of climate change.”

Bin Laden has mentioned climate change and global warning in past messages, but the latest tape was his first dedicated to the topic. The speech, which included almost no religious rhetoric, could be an attempt by the terror leader to give his message an appeal beyond Islamic militants.

The al-Qaida leader also targeted the U.S. economy in the recording, calling for a boycott of American products and an end to the dollar’s domination as a world currency.

“We should stop dealings with the dollar and get rid of it as soon as possible,” he said. “I know that this has great consequences and grave ramifications, but it is the only means to liberate humanity from slavery and dependence on America.”

He argued that such steps would also hamper Washington’s war efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq.

The new message, whose authenticity could not immediately be confirmed, comes after a bin Laden tape released last week in which he endorsed a failed attempt to blow up an American airliner on Christmas Day.

>Rebecca Solnit: When the Media Is the Disaster – Covering Haiti

When the Media Is the Disaster
Covering Haiti
By Rebecca Solnit

Soon after almost every disaster the crimes begin: ruthless, selfish, indifferent to human suffering, and generating far more suffering. The perpetrators go unpunished and live to commit further crimes against humanity. They care less for human life than for property. They act without regard for consequences.

I’m talking, of course, about those members of the mass media whose misrepresentation of what goes on in disaster often abets and justifies a second wave of disaster. I’m talking about the treatment of sufferers as criminals, both on the ground and in the news, and the endorsement of a shift of resources from rescue to property patrol. They still have blood on their hands from Hurricane Katrina, and they are staining themselves anew in Haiti.

Within days of the Haitian earthquake, for example, the Los Angeles Times ran a series of photographs with captions that kept deploying the word “looting.” One was of a man lying face down on the ground with this caption: “A Haitian police officer ties up a suspected looter who was carrying a bag of evaporated milk.” The man’s sweaty face looks up at the camera, beseeching, anguished.

Another photo was labeled: “Looting continued in Haiti on the third day after the earthquake, although there were more police in downtown Port-au-Prince.” It showed a somber crowd wandering amid shattered piles of concrete in a landscape where, visibly, there could be little worth taking anyway.

A third image was captioned: “A looter makes off with rolls of fabric from an earthquake-wrecked store.” Yet another: “The body of a police officer lies in a Port-au-Prince street. He was accidentally shot by fellow police who mistook him for a looter.”

People were then still trapped alive in the rubble. A translator for Australian TV dug out a toddler who’d survived 68 hours without food or water, orphaned but claimed by an uncle who had lost his pregnant wife. Others were hideously wounded and awaiting medical attention that wasn’t arriving. Hundreds of thousands, maybe millions, needed, and still need, water, food, shelter, and first aid. The media in disaster bifurcates. Some step out of their usual “objective” roles to respond with kindness and practical aid. Others bring out the arsenal of clichés and pernicious myths and begin to assault the survivors all over again.

The “looter” in the first photo might well have been taking that milk to starving children and babies, but for the news media that wasn’t the most urgent problem. The “looter” stooped under the weight of two big bolts of fabric might well have been bringing it to now homeless people trying to shelter from a fierce tropical sun under improvised tents.

The pictures do convey desperation, but they don’t convey crime. Except perhaps for that shooting of a fellow police officer — his colleagues were so focused on property that they were reckless when it came to human life, and a man died for no good reason in a landscape already saturated with death.

In recent days, there have been scattered accounts of confrontations involving weapons, and these may be a different matter. But the man with the powdered milk? Is he really a criminal? There may be more to know, but with what I’ve seen I’m not convinced.

What Would You Do?

Imagine, reader, that your city is shattered by a disaster. Your home no longer exists, and you spent what cash was in your pockets days ago. Your credit cards are meaningless because there is no longer any power to run credit-card charges. Actually, there are no longer any storekeepers, any banks, any commerce, or much of anything to buy. The economy has ceased to exist.

By day three, you’re pretty hungry and the water you grabbed on your way out of your house is gone. The thirst is far worse than the hunger. You can go for many days without food, but not water. And in the improvised encampment you settle in, there is an old man near you who seems on the edge of death. He no longer responds when you try to reassure him that this ordeal will surely end. Toddlers are now crying constantly, and their mothers infinitely stressed and distressed.

So you go out to see if any relief organization has finally arrived to distribute anything, only to realize that there are a million others like you stranded with nothing, and there isn’t likely to be anywhere near enough aid anytime soon. The guy with the corner store has already given away all his goods to the neighbors. That supply’s long gone by now. No wonder, when you see the chain pharmacy with the shattered windows or the supermarket, you don’t think twice before grabbing a box of PowerBars and a few gallons of water that might keep you alive and help you save a few lives as well.

The old man might not die, the babies might stop their squalling, and the mothers might lose that look on their faces. Other people are calmly wandering in and helping themselves, too. Maybe they’re people like you, and that gallon of milk the fellow near you has taken is going to spoil soon anyway. You haven’t shoplifted since you were 14, and you have plenty of money to your name. But it doesn’t mean anything now.

If you grab that stuff are you a criminal? Should you end up lying in the dirt on your stomach with a cop tying your hands behind your back? Should you end up labeled a looter in the international media? Should you be shot down in the street, since the overreaction in disaster, almost any disaster, often includes the imposition of the death penalty without benefit of trial for suspected minor property crimes?

Or are you a rescuer? Is the survival of disaster victims more important than the preservation of everyday property relations? Is that chain pharmacy more vulnerable, more a victim, more in need of help from the National Guard than you are, or those crying kids, or the thousands still trapped in buildings and soon to die?

It’s pretty obvious what my answers to these questions are, but it isn’t obvious to the mass media. And in disaster after disaster, at least since the San Francisco earthquake of 1906, those in power, those with guns and the force of law behind them, are too often more concerned for property than human life. In an emergency, people can, and do, die from those priorities. Or they get gunned down for minor thefts or imagined thefts. The media not only endorses such outcomes, but regularly, repeatedly, helps prepare the way for, and then eggs on, such a reaction.

If Words Could Kill

We need to banish the word “looting” from the English language. It incites madness and obscures realities.

“Loot,” the noun and the verb, is a word of Hindi origin meaning the spoils of war or other goods seized roughly. As historian Peter Linebaugh points out, “At one time loot was the soldier’s pay.” It entered the English language as a good deal of loot from India entered the English economy, both in soldiers’ pockets and as imperial seizures.

After years of interviewing survivors of disasters, and reading first-hand accounts and sociological studies from such disasters as the London Blitz and the Mexico City earthquake of 1985, I don’t believe in looting. Two things go on in disasters. The great majority of what happens you could call emergency requisitioning. Someone who could be you, someone in the kind of desperate circumstances I outlined above, takes necessary supplies to sustain human life in the absence of any alternative. Not only would I not call that looting, I wouldn’t even call that theft.

Necessity is a defense for breaking the law in the United States and other countries, though it’s usually applied more to, say, confiscating the car keys of a drunk driver than feeding hungry children. Taking things you don’t need is theft under any circumstances. It is, says the disaster sociologist Enrico Quarantelli, who has been studying the subject for more than half a century, vanishingly rare in most disasters.

Personal gain is the last thing most people are thinking about in the aftermath of a disaster. In that phase, the survivors are almost invariably more altruistic and less attached to their own property, less concerned with the long-term questions of acquisition, status, wealth, and security, than just about anyone not in such situations imagines possible. (The best accounts from Haiti of how people with next to nothing have patiently tried to share the little they have and support those in even worse shape than them only emphasize this disaster reality.) Crime often drops in the wake of a disaster.

The media are another matter. They tend to arrive obsessed with property (and the headlines that assaults on property can make). Media outlets often call everything looting and thereby incite hostility toward the sufferers as well as a hysterical overreaction on the part of the armed authorities. Or sometimes the journalists on the ground do a good job and the editors back in their safe offices cook up the crazy photo captions and the wrongheaded interpretations and emphases.

They also deploy the word panic wrongly. Panic among ordinary people in crisis is profoundly uncommon. The media will call a crowd of people running from certain death a panicking mob, even though running is the only sensible thing to do. In Haiti, they continue to report that food is being withheld from distribution for fear of “stampedes.” Do they think Haitians are cattle?

The belief that people in disaster (particularly poor and nonwhite people) are cattle or animals or just crazy and untrustworthy regularly justifies spending far too much energy and far too many resources on control — the American military calls it “security” — rather than relief. A British-accented voiceover on CNN calls people sprinting to where supplies are being dumped from a helicopter a “stampede” and adds that this delivery “risks sparking chaos.” The chaos already exists, and you can’t blame it on these people desperate for food and water. Or you can, and in doing so help convince your audience that they’re unworthy and untrustworthy.

Back to looting: of course you can consider Haiti’s dire poverty and failed institutions a long-term disaster that changes the rules of the game. There might be people who are not only interested in taking the things they need to survive in the next few days, but things they’ve never been entitled to own or things they may need next month. Technically that’s theft, but I’m not particularly surprised or distressed by it; the distressing thing is that even before the terrible quake they led lives of deprivation and desperation.

In ordinary times, minor theft is often considered a misdemeanor. No one is harmed. Unchecked, minor thefts could perhaps lead to an environment in which there were more thefts and so forth, and a good argument can be made that, in such a case, the tide needs to be stemmed. But it’s not particularly significant in a landscape of terrible suffering and mass death.

A number of radio hosts and other media personnel are still upset that people apparently took TVs after Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans in August 2005. Since I started thinking about, and talking to people about, disaster aftermaths I’ve heard a lot about those damned TVs. Now, which matters more to you, televisions or human life? People were dying on rooftops and in overheated attics and freeway overpasses, they were stranded in all kinds of hideous circumstances on the Gulf Coast in 2005 when the mainstream media began to obsess about looting, and the mayor of New Orleans and the governor of Louisiana made the decision to focus on protecting property, not human life.

A gang of white men on the other side of the river from New Orleans got so worked up about property crimes that they decided to take the law into their own hands and began shooting. They seem to have considered all black men criminals and thieves and shot a number of them. Some apparently died; there were bodies bloating in the September sun far from the region of the floods; one good man trying to evacuate the ruined city barely survived; and the media looked away. It took me months of nagging to even get the story covered. This vigilante gang claimed to be protecting property, though its members never demonstrated that their property was threatened. They boasted of killing black men. And they shared values with the mainstream media and the Louisiana powers that be.

Somehow, when the Bush administration subcontracted emergency services — like providing evacuation buses in Hurricane Katrina — to cronies who profited even while providing incompetent, overpriced, and much delayed service at the moment of greatest urgency, we didn’t label that looting.

Or when a lot of wealthy Wall Street brokers decide to tinker with a basic human need like housing…. Well, you catch my drift.

Woody Guthrie once sang that “some will rob you with a six-gun, and some with a fountain pen.” The guys with the six guns (or machetes or sharpened sticks) make for better photographs, and the guys with the fountain pens not only don’t end up in jail, they end up in McMansions with four-car garages and, sometimes, in elected — or appointed — office.

Learning to See in Crises

Last Christmas a priest, Father Tim Jones of York, started a ruckus in Britain when he said in a sermon that shoplifting by the desperate from chain stores might be acceptable behavior. Naturally, there was an uproar. Jones told the Associated Press: “The point I’m making is that when we shut down every socially acceptable avenue for people in need, then the only avenue left is the socially unacceptable one.”

The response focused almost entirely on why shoplifting is wrong, but the claim was also repeatedly made that it doesn’t help. In fact, food helps the hungry, a fact so bald it’s bizarre to even have to state it. The means by which it arrives is a separate matter. The focus remained on shoplifting, rather than on why there might be people so desperate in England’s green and pleasant land that shoplifting might be their only option, and whether unnecessary human suffering is itself a crime of sorts.

Right now, the point is that people in Haiti need food, and for all the publicity, the international delivery system has, so far, been a visible dud. Under such circumstances, breaking into a U.N. food warehouse — food assumedly meant for the poor of Haiti in a catastrophic moment — might not be “violence,” or “looting,” or “law-breaking.” It might be logic. It might be the most effective way of meeting a desperate need.

Why were so many people in Haiti hungry before the earthquake? Why do we have a planet that produces enough food for all and a distribution system that ensures more than a billion of us don’t have a decent share of that bounty? Those are not questions whose answers should be long delayed.

Even more urgently, we need compassion for the sufferers in Haiti and media that tell the truth about them. I’d like to propose alternative captions for those Los Angeles Times photographs as models for all future disasters:

Let’s start with the picture of the policeman hogtying the figure whose face is so anguished: “Ignoring thousands still trapped in rubble, a policeman accosts a sufferer who took evaporated milk. No adequate food distribution exists for Haiti’s starving millions.”

And the guy with the bolt of fabric? “As with every disaster, ordinary people show extraordinary powers of improvisation, and fabrics such as these are being used to make sun shelters around Haiti.”

For the murdered policeman: “Institutional overzealousness about protecting property leads to a gratuitous murder, as often happens in crises. Meanwhile countless people remain trapped beneath crushed buildings.”

And the crowd in the rubble labeled looters? How about: “Resourceful survivors salvage the means of sustaining life from the ruins of their world.”

That one might not be totally accurate, but it’s likely to be more accurate than the existing label. And what is absolutely accurate, in Haiti right now, and on Earth always, is that human life matters more than property, that the survivors of a catastrophe deserve our compassion and our understanding of their plight, and that we live and die by words and ideas, and it matters desperately that we get them right.

Copyright 2010 Rebecca Solnit

>Profetas das chuvas preveem inverno rigoroso

Os três profetas populares que mais acertam em previsões de chuvas, prenunciam forte quadra invernosa

Diário do Nordeste, Caderno Regional – 08/01/2010

Quixadá. Cientistas populares de todo o Estado se reúnem neste município do Sertão Central, amanhã, para divulgar seus prognósticos sobre a quadra invernosa deste ano. O XIV Encontro dos Profetas da Chuva ocorre neste sábado no antigo Clube dos Agrônomos, no entorno do Açude do Cedro. Segundo o presidente do Instituto de Pesquisa de Violas e Poesia Cultural Popular do Sertão Central, João Soares, são esperados, no mínimo, 30 profetas e dezenas de convidados. Ontem, alguns deles anteciparam, com exclusividade, para o Diário do Nordeste, as suas previsões.

Responsáveis pelo maior número de acertos na última década, Chico Leiteiro, Paulo Costa e Antônio Lima tem praticamente as mesmas previsões para o inverno deste ano. Deve chover muito. No levantamento efetuado pela reportagem, o trio tem percentual de acerto, avaliado o quadro geral no Ceará, superior a 80%. No segundo sábado de janeiro de 2009, Francisco Quintino dos Santos, o Chico Leito, previu diante do público inundações no Estado. Fato que se confirmou em muitos municípios cearense no Interior.

Leiteiro observa as “carregações” do tempo, as plantas, abelhas para fazer seu prognóstico. Diz que, quando os inchuís ou colmeias de marimbondos, também conhecidos como capuxus ou vespas do papel, estão novinhos, no início do ano, é sinal de bom inverno. Associando essas observações ao movimento de outros isentos, do vento, das nuvens e dos astros, tira suas conclusões para o período invernoso a seguir. Ele começou a se familiarizar com esses sinais aos 11 anos de idade e, desde então, foi aumentando sua sensibilidade para os sinais da natureza.

Cantoria dos pássaros

Tendo no cupim seu principal parceiro na hora de prever a próxima estação chuvosa, Antônio Tavares da Silva – o Lima vem dos avós – também encontra na cantoria do sabiá, da cuã e da mãe-de-lua, motivo para animação. Para ele, as árvores também falam ou carregam suas ramagens de esperança para o lavrador. Afirma, categórico: “Se os homens são atingidos por inundações é porque não respeitam a natureza. Os pássaros tem como se proteger, ganharam asas para voar”.

Um pouco mais alto observa Paulo Costa, o único com formação acadêmica no grupo de profetas populares e um dos participantes dos encontros da categoria desde a primeira edição, em 1997. Associando o movimento dos astros a numerologia, complementando seus estudos com um ritual místico herdado do avô, denominado por ele “Arca de Noé”, em matéria de diagnóstico invernoso só perde para Chico Leiteiro. São apenas 3% a menos de percentual de acerto entre um e outro.

Aposentado, poeta popular por amor a arte dos versos, o profeta Erasmo Barreira tem como certa a chegada de inverno observando a árvore do juazeiro carregada e na casa do João-de-barro. Curiosamente, a natureza deu a esse pássaro o dom de construir seu ninho em forma de forno com a porta virada para o poente quando vem chuva, no nascente. No ano passado, ele expôs um ninho de João-de-barro ao público. Dessa vez pretende levar um bagaço de formigueiro, outra prova de chuvarada por vir. Aprendeu tudo com o pai, José Pergentino Barreira, que hoje completa 102 anos. No início, o poeta levava as previsões do pai para o Encontro. Chegou a receber o título de “Profeta de Procuração”. Para ele a cerimônia que reúne os sábios populares é um dos momentos mais importantes já experimentados em sua vida.

Homenagens especiais

Na cerimônia de apresentação dos “mestres da chuva” um deles, João Ferreira de Lima, receberá uma homenagem especial, póstuma. Ele morreu no início do ano. Completaria 81 anos em abril próximo. Nas suas experiências o profeta popular, conhecido por sua seriedade, se baseava principalmente na barra de Natal. João Ferreira nasceu em Choró, quando o município ainda pertencia a Quixadá.

Além dele, o presidente da Assembleia Legislativa, Domingos Filho, o diretor regional do Sebrae, Alci Porto, o secretário de Cultura do Estado, Auto Filho, o secretário de Desenvolvimento Econômico de Quixadá, Nascimento Marques, a presidenta da Fundação Cultural Rachel de Queiroz, Sandra Venâncio, o radialista Jonas Sousa e o cantor Raimundo Fagner serão homenageados.

Fagner não poderá comparecer ao Encontro. Ele faz show no Rio. A comenda será entregue a um representante. João Soares e Helder Cortez, idealizadores e organizadores do evento, explicam: Ele tem uma identificação peculiar com a simplicidade sertaneja, procura na natureza os sinais da esperança.

XIV Encontro de Profetas da Chuva
Amanhã, às 9h – Clube do Agrônomo / Aç. do Cedro / Quixadá, V Encanta Quixadá, hoje, às 19h, (88) 9635.0828


Sinais da natureza orientam prognóstico no CE

Com certeza teremos inverno grosso este ano novamente. Eu não queria prever coisa assim, mas será meio perigoso. Se a quadra da Lua Cheia não me enganar, vai acontecer isso mesmo. Até o mar cresce quando ela aparece. Esses estudiosos falam desse tal de “Ninho”, mas pelo jeito até os pássaros vão ter de procurar lugar mais seguro pra ficar, principalmente se construíram casa dentro de rio. O inverno deve ser grande a partir do fim de março.
Chico Leiteiro

O nosso povo pode esperar muita chuva este ano. Nas minhas observações, o inverno se configura mesmo a partir de março, com chuvas pesadas. A tendência é ser, inclusive, superior ao do ano passado. Os ciclos se completam de fevereiro para março e de abril para julho, onde a expectativa é de aguaceiro. Os números dos meses provam isso. Os dias das semanas de fevereiro são os mesmos de março e os de abril são iguais aos de julho. As chuvas devem continuar até o mês de outubro.
Paulo Costa

O inverno começa firme ainda no fim do mês de fevereiro para o início de março e se segura firme até maio. A chuvarada deve ser na mesma proporção do ano passado, mas em áreas isoladas do Interior do Estado. Além dos sinais dos bichos e dos insetos, os ventos do Aracati anunciam isso. Vem muita chuva por ai, com ventos fortes e muita trovoada. Formiga não é satélite, mas tem antena, e as delas tão alvoroçadas, indicando que vem muita água por ai no Estado.
Antônio Lima


Cantadores de viola abrem encontro

Noitada cultural ao som de violas e repentes marca a abertura, hoje, do encontro dos profetas das chuvas

Quixadá. Quem também rende tributo à tradição nordestina e aos observadores do tempo são os cantadores de viola. Seis duplas se apresentam na véspera do Encontro, na noitada cultural do V Encanta Quixadá, no Centro Cultural Rachel de Queiroz, hoje à noite. Geraldo Amâncio comanda a peleja de repente. Além dos repentistas, está programada a apresentação do espetáculo teatral “Profetas da Chuva”. Chico Mariano e Paroara contam para o público suas experiências. O curioso da encenação são os intérpretes. Os dois profetas de Quixadá são vividos por duas atrizes: Clara Colin e Paula Cavalcanti. Elas já apresentam a peça desde 2007 no Sul do País. Simples e narrativo o prólogo, intercalado com cantos de modas sertanejos, envolve o público à linguagem peculiar e observações dos protagonistas sobre a quadra invernosa no sertão. “Acontece muita prosa enquanto o céu se prepara para ficar bonito de chover”.

As duas atrações, o Encontro dos Profetas da Chuva e o Encanta Quixadá são abertas ao público. A entrada é franca. Parcerias com o Sebrae, Banco do Brasil e Caixa Econômica e mais de uma dezena de patrocinadores garantem o acesso gratuito e a realização dos dois eventos.

Quando o comerciário João Soares de Freitas e o agrônomo Hélder dos Santos Cortez resolveram reunir um grupo de observadores da natureza, a buscarem nela os sinais de probabilidade invernosa no Interior do Ceará, não imaginavam quão importante papel científico e cultural protagonizavam a partir de 1997. No pequeno auditório da Câmara de Dirigentes Lojistas (CDL) de Quixadá, reuniram Antão Mendes, Antônio Lima, Antônio Alexandre dos Santos, Antônio Anastácio da Silva (Paroara), Expedito Epifânio da Silva, Francisco Mariano e Joaquim Ferreira Santiago, o Joaquim Muqueca, Paulo Costa, Raimundo Mota Silva e Ribamar Lima.

João Soares recorda do I Encontro. O inverno daquele ano foi considerado bom. Observado o registro efetuado por ele e o parceiro idealizador, então gerente regional da Cagece, Hélder Cortez, houve divergências entre os prognósticos dos profetas da chuva.

Cinco deles estimaram inverno fraco. Outros cinco avaliaram como regular. Apenas as observações de Antônio Alexandre dos Santos se enquadram nas perspectivas. Ele foi curto e objetivo: bom inverno. Este ano não será diferente. Quem souber melhor interpretar a natureza, acerta mais.


1997 foi o ano de início da promoção do Encontro de Profetas das Chuvas, evento idealizado pelo comerciário João Soares de Freitas e o engenheiro agrônomo Hélder dos Santos Cortez


>Idealização e abstração


Agência FAPESP, 22/12/2009
Por Fabio Reynol

Distinguir o falso e suprimir o verdadeiro é, para a maior parte dos casos, indispensável para se fazer uma boa ciência cognitiva. A declaração provocativa foi feita por John Woods, professor da Universidade da Colúmbia Britânica, no Canadá.

O filósofo participou na semana passada do Seminário “Raciocínio Baseado em Modelo em Ciência e Tecnologia”, na Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp). O evento foi realizado no âmbito do Projeto Temático Logical Consequence and Combinations of Logics – Fundaments and Efficient Applications apoiado pela FAPESP e coordenado por Walter Carnielli, professor do Instituto de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas da Unicamp.

Woods se refere a dois recursos utilizados pelo raciocínio baseado em modelo voltado à ciência: a idealização e a abstração. Segundo ele, ambos são distorções da realidade que acabam trazendo bons resultados para a investigação científica. “São essas distorções que os tornam interessantes”, disse.

Enquanto a idealização representa em demasia um fenômeno expressando aspectos considerados falsos, a abstração o sub-representa ao eliminar algumas variáveis em favorecimento de outras na tentativa de simplificar o problema. Um exemplo de idealização são problemas de física em que não é considerado o atrito das superfícies.

As ideias de Woods fazem um contraponto à imagem instrumentalista da ciência, de uma ferramenta para registrar a realidade por meio apenas de medições precisas e fiéis. Para ele, os modelos científicos de sucesso contêm distorções. “A distorção não é incompatível com a aquisição do conhecimento”, destacou.

A base estaria no próprio sistema de modelagem, que nunca será idêntico ao fenômeno representado. “Se algo com que um objeto se parece nunca será o próprio objeto, então dizer o que é esse objeto é o mesmo que afirmar o que ele não é”, disse Woods.

O filósofo criou um modelo representativo para explicar como tais modelos conseguem ser bem-sucedidos. Segundo ele, os conhecimentos resultantes desses processos modelados não são obtidos por instrumentos, mas por cognição, e ainda usam uma técnica contraintuitiva ao trabalhar com considerações irreais, idealizadas ou até mesmo falsas.

“Entender as coisas de maneira errada é um meio de entendê-las corretamente. É intrigante mesmo – e dá certo”, afirmou.

Além de Carnielli, coordenaram o seminário o professor Lorenzo Magnani, da Universidade de Pavia, e o professor Claudio Pizzi, da Universidade de Siena. As duas instituições italianas promoveram o evento em conjunto com a Unicamp.