Arquivo da tag: Biodiversidade e povos indígenas

‘Crucial’ Cop15 deal includes target to protect 30% of nature on Earth by 2030 (Guardian)

theguardian.com

Environmental groups and ministers have praised the ambition of the agreement, which also places emphasis on Indigenous rights

Cop15 deal is passed in Montreal, Canada. From left, David Ainsworth, Huang Runqiu, Elizabeth Mrema and Inger Andersen.
Cop15 deal is passed in Montreal, Canada. From left, David Ainsworth, Huang Runqiu, Elizabeth Mrema and Inger Andersen. Photograph: Julian Haber/Courtesy of Environment and Climate Change Canada

Phoebe Weston and Patrick Greenfield in Montreal

Mon 19 Dec 2022 12.50 GMT; Last modified on Mon 19 Dec 2022 13.02 GMT


Ministers and environmental groups have praised the ambition of the historic deal reached at Cop15, which includes a target to protect 30% of the planet for nature by the end of the decade and places emphasis on Indigenous rights.

But there were also concerns about the legitimacy of the deal after China appeared to force it through.

In the early hours of Monday, two weeks of UN biodiversity negotiations ended in confusion as China signed off on this decade’s targets for protecting nature despite an objection from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), home to the world’s second largest tropical forest.

There was widespread support for the final text, which included the targets of protecting 30% of the planet for nature by the end of the decade, reforming $500bn (£410bn) of environmentally damaging subsidies, and taking urgent action on extinctions.

“The global ambition agreed at Cop15 to halt and reverse biodiversity loss by 2030 is vital if we are to bring our planet back from the brink,” said Mike Barrett, the executive director of science and conservation at WWF-UK. “The tripling of international finance for developing countries, conservation targets to halt species extinction, and the rights of Indigenous peoples being placed front and centre are crucial cornerstones of the deal.”

Others praised the emphasis in the final text on the rights and territories of Indigenous people who, despite their outsized contribution to protecting nature, often face threats of violence and rights violations.

“Now it is recognising that Indigenous people can also make contributions to biodiversity conservation,” said Viviana Figueroa, a representative of the International Indigenous Forum on Biodiversity (IIFB). “For us, it’s like a change of paradigm,” she said. “They are recognising this important role that was invisible.”

Christophe Béchu, France’s minister for ecological transition, who headed its delegation, called it a “historic deal”. He said: “It’s not a small deal. It’s a deal with very precise and quantified objectives on pesticides, on reduction of loss of species, on eliminating bad subsidies. We double until 2025 and triple 2030 the finance for biodiversity.”

“Many of us wanted more things in the text and more ambition but we got an ambitious package,” said Canada’s minister of environment and climate change, Steven Guilbeault. “We have 30 by 30. Six months ago, who would have thought we could get 30 by 30 in Montreal? We have an agreement to halt and reverse biodiversity loss, to work on restoration, to reduce the use of pesticides. This is tremendous progress.”

But despite the praise, the UN conference ended in high drama after a number of countries complained it had been agreed undemocratically by China. Some felt that this undermined the agreement, which is not legally binding and relies on goodwill and trust between countries – including many in Africa, home to some of the planet’s richest remaining ecosystems.

“Legally, it’s done. Morally, what can I say? It’s over,” said Lee White, Gabon’s environment minister, as he left the Palais des congrès at the end of talks, when asked about the dramatic conclusion and whether it threatened the legitimacy of the deal.

“I’ve spent three years of my life on this process and I’m as pissed off as anybody. It shouldn’t be like that. China has pissed it all away,” said one negotiator, who said he had concerns about implementation, whether countries who objected would agree to work and implement the CBD. This matters because the Congo basin – which DRC covers 60% of – is one of the key ecosystems that the 30 by 30 agreement will need to protect.

The plenary that began on Sunday evening and lasted for more than seven hours with an agreement reached at 3.30am local time after objections from some countries about finance. Huang Runqiu, China’s environment minister, appeared to disregard objections from the DRC delegation, lowering the gavel and declaring the deal passed only minutes after they said they were not able to support it.

The comments from DRC about the responsibility of developed nations to fund conservation in developing countries were not considered a “formal objection” because he did not use those specific words, despite saying he did not support the agreement, the secretariat said.

“It was on the margins,” said Pierre du Plessis, the negotiator for Namibia. “But he didn’t officially object to the adoption.”

After the official agreement, the DRC negotiator spoke again, saying he had made a “formal objection”. This was followed by negotiators from Cameroon, Uganda and DRC expressing incredulity that the agreement had been put through. A representative from Cameroon said through an interpreter: “What we saw was a force of hand.”

A third of the Congo basin’s tropical forests are under threat from fossil fuel investments, which could unleash a “carbon bomb” into the atmosphere if plans go ahead, analysis suggests.

When speaking to journalists after the agreement, Guilbeault and the EU commissioner, Virginijus Sinkevičius, said they were not lawyers and so could not answer whether it would be legitimate to gavel the deal had DRC’s comments been a “formal objection”.

“I think the presidency acted within guidelines, rules and procedures of the United Nations,” said Guilbeault. “Some of my colleagues have started reaching out to DRC in hopes that we can find ways that we can work together moving forward.” He said claims the agreement was fraudulent were “clearly not accurate”.

Sinkevičius said: “This is a question for the presidency and secretariat – we saw that they were deciding something, they were discussing something and then suddenly the decision was taken.” He added: “The main message is that we can reach Paris because we have a Montreal moment”.

COP15 da biodiversidade começa com racha sobre conservação (Folha de S.Paulo)

www1.folha.uol.com.br

Ana Carolina Amaral

Brasil busca proteger agrotóxicos e atrair recursos, mas rejeita meta global


De quem é a responsabilidade pela conservação da biodiversidade global? Essa é a pergunta que trava as negociações da COP15 da Convenção de Diversidade Biológica da ONU, que começa nesta quarta-feira (7) e vai até o próximo dia 19, em Montreal, no Canadá. O objetivo é chegar a um novo acordo global que reúna os países em torno de uma meta de conservação.

A proposta mais popular leva o apelido de 30×30 e prevê conservar 30% da biodiversidade global até 2030. ONGs e movimentos sociais defendem uma parcela maior, que garanta a conservação de 50% dos ecossistemas.

Na segunda-feira (5), a meta mais ambiciosa foi defendida em uma carta assinada por dezenas de organizações brasileiras, incluindo a Apib (Articulação dos Povos Indígenas do Brasil) e o MST (Movimento Sem Terra).

Embora ainda haja diversas propostas de números na mesa, o detalhe, no entan [sic] que racha as posições dos países é a definição sobre a meta ser global ou nacional. O Brasil trabalha contra a meta global. Propõe, no lugar, que cada país se comprometa a conservar 30% do seu território, de modo que a meta se torne nacional.

A estratégia busca evitar que a responsabilidade por boa parte da biodiversidade global seja empurrada para dentro do território nacional, que é o mais biodiverso do mundo. China, África do Sul e outros países megabiodiversos e em desenvolvimento acompanham o Brasil nessa posição.

Alguns países desenvolvidos, no entanto, têm dito que não haverá acordo sem uma meta global. Para o bloco rico, a responsabilidade pela conservação é dos países detentores da biodiversidade.

Para que os territórios biodiversos não se tornem um ônus para o país detentor, que teria o uso do seu território restringido, a proposta defendida por países, cientistas e organizações ambientalistas é que o restante do mundo financie a conservação desses territórios.

Aqui entra outra divergência: países em desenvolvimento querem que isso aconteça através de um novo fundo, voltado à biodiversidade. A proposta, feita pelo Brasil no início do ano, ganhou força após a aprovação de um novo fundo climático na COP27, no mês passado.

Mas os países ricos evitam assumir esse compromisso e já adiantam que o financiamento deve vir de todas as fontes —públicas e privadas.

Outro caminho para valorizar economicamente a biodiversidade é a definição sobre incentivos econômicos para as atividades que contribuem com a conservação e a extinção dos subsídios às ações danosas para os biomas.

Nesse tema, o Brasil tenta emplacar o incentivo à bioeconomia (que envolve a exploração de espécies florestais não madeireiras, com a extração de cacau, castanha, açaí, entre outros), mas enfrenta resistência e desconfiança especialmente dos europeus. Isso porque o país também vai à COP15 para proteger o comércio agrícola, evitando, por exemplo, uma proposta da União Europeia que prevê cortar os subsídios aos agrotóxicos —algo que o Brasil busca proteger.

“O Brasil confia que variados setores de sua economia, inclusive o agronegócio, apresentam casos de sucesso de sustentabilidade, que contribuem para reafirmar o compromisso brasileiro com a promoção do desenvolvimento sustentável e a inclusão social, aliados ao fomento à inovação, à ciência e à tecnologia”, diz um ofício do Itamaraty enviado em resposta ao requerimento de informação pelo deputado federal Rodrigo Agostinho (PSB-SP) sobre as posições brasileiras na COP15.

A Folha teve acesso aos ofícios enviados pelos ministérios de Relações Exteriores, Economia, Agricultura e Justiça em resposta ao deputado. Já o Ministério do Meio Ambiente foi o único que não respondeu aos questionamentos e pediu mais prazo, embora tenha enviado negociadores para completar o time dos diplomatas na COP15.

Entre as negociações que mais engajam o Itamaraty e o setor privado brasileiro nesta COP, estão o pagamento por serviços ambientais e a repartição dos benefícios da utilização de recursos genéticos, que podem ser implementados a partir da negociação, nesta COP, do mecanismo de Informações de Sequenciamento Digitais (conhecido como DSI, na sigla em inglês).

Embora os países tenham apenas 12 dias de negociação pela frente, a expectativa de que atinjam um consenso que permita assinar um novo acordo global pela biodiversidade é baixa, já que eles chegam à COP15 com poucos avanços colhidos das duas reuniões preparatórias. O rascunho do acordo já passou por negociações em Genebra, em março, e em Nairóbi, no Quênia, em junho.

Além das questões centrais sobre a meta global e o financiamento, os países mantêm posições conflituosas em pelo menos outras seis metas, sobre restauração, áreas espaciais para conservação, poluição, clima, integração com outras áreas e financiamento.

Ancient Indigenous forest gardens promote a healthy ecosystem, says study (Native News Post)

nativenewspost.com


An aerial view of a forest garden. Credit: SFU

A new study by Simon Fraser University historical ecologists finds that Indigenous-managed forests—cared for as “forest gardens”—contain more biologically and functionally diverse species than surrounding conifer-dominated forests and create important habitat for animals and pollinators. The findings are published today in Ecology and Society.

According to researchers, ancient forests were once tended by Ts’msyen and Coast Salish peoples living along the north and south Pacific coast. These forest gardens continue to grow at remote archeological villages on Canada’s northwest coast and are composed of native fruit and nut trees and shrubs such as crabapple, hazelnut, cranberry, wild plum, and wild cherries. Important medicinal plants and root foods like wild ginger and wild rice root grow in the understory layers.

“These plants never grow together in the wild,” says Chelsey Geralda Armstrong, an SFU Indigenous Studies assistant professor and the study lead researcher. “It seemed obvious that people put them there to grow all in one spot—like a garden. Elders and knowledge holders talk about perennial management all the time.”

“It’s no surprise these forest gardens continue to grow at archeological village sites that haven’t yet been too severely disrupted by settler-colonial land-use.”

Ts’msyen and Coast Salish peoples’ management practices challenge the assumption that humans tend to overturn or exhaust the ecosystems they inhabit. This research highlights how Indigenous peoples not only improved the inhabited landscape, but were also keystone builders, facilitating the creation of habitat in some cases. The findings provide strong evidence that Indigenous management practices are tied to ecosystem health and resilience.

“Human activities are often considered detrimental to biodiversity, and indeed, industrial land management has had devastating consequences for biodiversity,” says Jesse Miller, study co-author, ecologist and lecturer at Stanford University. “Our research, however, shows that human activities can also have substantial benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem function. Our findings highlight that there continues to be an important role for human activities in restoring and managing ecosystems in the present and future.”

Forest gardens are a common management regime identified in Indigenous communities around the world, especially in tropical regions. Armstrong says the study is the first time forest gardens have been studied in North America—showing how important Indigenous peoples are in the maintenance and defense of some of the most functionally diverse ecosystems on the Northwest Coast.

“The forest gardens of Kitselas Canyon are a testament to the long-standing practice of Kitselas people shaping the landscape through stewardship and management,” says Chris Apps, director, Kitselas Lands & Resources Department. “Studies such as this reconnect the community with historic resources and support integration of traditional approaches with contemporary land-use management while promoting exciting initiatives for food sovereignty and cultural reflection.”



More information:
Chelsey Geralda Armstrong et al, Historical Indigenous Land-Use Explains Plant Functional Trait Diversity, Ecology and Society (2021). DOI: 10.5751/ES-12322-260206

Citation:
Ancient Indigenous forest gardens promote a healthy ecosystem, says study (2021, April 22)
retrieved 22 April 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-04-ancient-indigenous-forest-gardens-healthy.html

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Ancient Indigenous forest gardens promote a healthy ecosystem (Science Daily)

Date: April 22, 2021

Source: Simon Fraser University

Summary: A new study by historical ecologists finds that Indigenous-managed forests — cared for as ‘forest gardens’ — contain more biologically and functionally diverse species than surrounding conifer-dominated forests and create important habitat for animals and pollinators.


A new study by Simon Fraser University historical ecologists finds that Indigenous-managed forests — cared for as “forest gardens” — contain more biologically and functionally diverse species than surrounding conifer-dominated forests and create important habitat for animals and pollinators. The findings are published today in Ecology and Society.

According to researchers, ancient forests were once tended by Ts’msyen and Coast Salish peoples living along the north and south Pacific coast. These forest gardens continue to grow at remote archaeological villages on Canada’s northwest coast and are composed of native fruit and nut trees and shrubs such as crabapple, hazelnut, cranberry, wild plum, and wild cherries. Important medicinal plants and root foods like wild ginger and wild rice root grow in the understory layers.

“These plants never grow together in the wild,” says Chelsey Geralda Armstrong, an SFU Indigenous Studies assistant professor and the study lead researcher. “It seemed obvious that people put them there to grow all in one spot — like a garden. Elders and knowledge holders talk about perennial management all the time.”

“It’s no surprise these forest gardens continue to grow at archaeological village sites that haven’t yet been too severely disrupted by settler-colonial land-use.”

Ts’msyen and Coast Salish peoples’ management practices challenge the assumption that humans tend to overturn or exhaust the ecosystems they inhabit. This research highlights how Indigenous peoples not only improved the inhabited landscape, but were also keystone builders, facilitating the creation of habitat in some cases. The findings provide strong evidence that Indigenous management practices are tied to ecosystem health and resilience.

“Human activities are often considered detrimental to biodiversity, and indeed, industrial land management has had devastating consequences for biodiversity,” says Jesse Miller, study co-author, ecologist and lecturer at Stanford University. “Our research, however, shows that human activities can also have substantial benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem function. Our findings highlight that there continues to be an important role for human activities in restoring and managing ecosystems in the present and future.”

Forest gardens are a common management regime identified in Indigenous communities around the world, especially in tropical regions. Armstrong says the study is the first time forest gardens have been studied in North America — showing how important Indigenous peoples are in the maintenance and defence of some of the most functionally diverse ecosystems on the Northwest Coast.

“The forest gardens of Kitselas Canyon are a testament to the long-standing practice of Kitselas people shaping the landscape through stewardship and management,” says Chris Apps, director, Kitselas Lands & Resources Department. “Studies such as this reconnect the community with historic resources and support integration of traditional approaches with contemporary land-use management while promoting exciting initiatives for food sovereignty and cultural reflection.”



Journal Reference:

  1. Chelsey Geralda Armstrong, Jesse E. D. Miller, Alex C. McAlvay, Patrick Morgan Ritchie, Dana Lepofsky. Historical Indigenous Land-Use Explains Plant Functional Trait Diversity. Ecology and Society, 2021; 26 (2) DOI: 10.5751/ES-12322-260206