Arquivo da tag: Gentrificação

Samba soccer. The transformation of Brazil’s most storied team (The New Yorker)

BEN MCGRATHJANUARY 13, 2014

The last time Brazil hosted the World Cup, in 1950, two hundred thousand people—a tenth of the population of Rio de Janeiro—streamed into the newly completed Maracanã Stadium to watch their beloved national team, the Seleção, compete for the title against Uruguay. A monumental concrete bowl, intended to rival the Christ statue atop Corcovado, the Maracanã resembled a spaceship and was meant to embody, as the British journalist Alex Bellos writes in “Futebol: The Brazilian Way of Life,” not only Brazil’s athletic ambition but also “the country’s place in the modern world.” Its capacity was greater by several magnitudes than any other Brazilian stadium. Some ten thousand men had contributed to its construction, practicing goal celebrations while they worked. They’d even, somehow, finished ahead of schedule. (…)

Ler o artigo integral aqui: The New Yorker _ Jan 13, 2014

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Bíblia do jornalismo dos EUA vê Itaquerão como ‘monumento à gentrificação’ (UOL)

Do UOL, em São Paulo06/01/201418h52

Itaquerão – dezembro. Governo federal divulgou imagens da obra do Itaquerão, estádio de São Paulo para a Copa Divulgação/Portal da Copa/Ministério do Esporte

A nova edição da revista New Yorker, considerada a Bíblia do jornalismo norte-americano, apresenta um texto de 14 páginas sobre o futebol brasileiro, a preparação do país para a Copa do Mundo e o Corinthians.

Escrita para o público dos Estados Unidos, a reportagem cita o Itaquerão, palco da abertura da Copa do Mundo, em São Paulo, como um “monumento à gentrificação”, compara Andrés Sanchez ao magnata Donald Trump, Ronaldo a um astro do beisebol, Romário ao boxeador Muhammad Ali e define a CBF como uma entidade “desonrosa”.

Gentrificação é o nome que se dá ao fenômeno social que afeta a população de baixa renda de determinado lugar por meio da valorização imobiliária provocada por um novo empreendimento, como um shopping center ou um estádio de futebol, por exemplo.

Após a construção desse novo equipamento, o preço dos imóveis da vizinhança aumenta, obrigando a população pobre a se mudar – em geral para um bairro mais distante. Os serviços, por consequência, também ficam mais caros, excluindo também pequenos comerciantes.

“O estádio, um monumento à gentrificação, terá o maior telão digital da Terra e uma iluminação duas vezes mais forte do que a utilizada na Allianz Arena, em Munique. Segundo dizem, será visível, em uma noite clara, a 80 km de distância”, diz o texto.

O jornalista Ben McGrath, autor da matéria, compara o luxo do estádio com o que viu em sua visita à Itaquera escrevendo que “o caminho deixou arranha-céus para trás e nos levou direto para a arruinada zona leste, onde grafites e lixo predominam.” Em volta do estádio, “homens trabalhavam para transformar encostas barrentas de uma colina em um cinturão verde”.

O texto, então, faz uma crítica aos estádios construídos para o mundial. McGrath afirma que o Itaquerão, pelo menos, receberá jogos de um grande time quando a Copa do Mundo acabar. “Mas o que será do recentemente reformado Estádio Nacional, com 70 mil lugares, de Brasília, uma cidade cujos maiores times jogam em divisões menores, para plateias que geralmente não passam de algumas centenas?”

A Arena da Amazônia, segundo sugere o autor, também poderá se transformar num elefante branco para Manaus, “uma cidade cercada por 8 mil km² de floresta amazônica”. “Nenhum time do Amazonas competiu em alto nível nos últimos 30 anos”, diz.

REVISTA FALA DE FUTEBOL, CORINTHIANS E COPA DO MUNDO

Comparações com TV e beisebol

Talvez para situar seu público, McGrath opta para comparar figuras do futebol brasileiro com possíveis similares norte-americanos. Para ele, o ex-presidente do Corinthians Andrés Sanchez, que atualmente é responsável por supervisionar a construção da nova arena corintiana, soa como o empresário Donald Trump, dono de uma vasta rede de hotéis e cassinos e criador do reality show “O Aprendiz”.

“Cada metro quadrado foi projetado [do estádio] em um esquema para dar dinheiro”, escreve McGrath. A impressão do autor foi corroborada pelo próprio Andrés, que disse que declarou a ele que “a ideia era fazer o melhor e maior shopping center do mundo com um campo de futebol no meio.”

Ainda no campo das comparações, a reportagem diz que o ex-jogador Romário é hoje uma das maiores vozes da oposição à Copa do Mundo. “Antes conhecido como um playboy, ele é agora um congressista socialista – um Derek Jeter que se remodelou como Muhammad Ali para aproveitar o momento político”.

Jogador de beisebol, Jeter é o capitão do New York Yankees e já participou 13 vezes do Jogo das Estrelas. O atleta é famoso por seus relacionamentos amorosos com atrizes e modelos. Ronaldo também foi comparado a um jogador de beisebol: David Ortiz, o Big Papi. Com 104 quilos, o rebatedor é ídolo em Boston por suas atuações em momentos decisivos.

Corrupção, violência e Bom Senso

A CBF foi citada como desonrosa e caça-níquel por McGrath. “O problema não é só que poucos atletas da Seleção jogam no Brasil, mas o time nacional fica anos sem jogar em solo brasileiro. Em vez disso, faz turnês pelo mundo, como os Harlem Globetrotters, para levantar dinheiro para a desonrosa CBF.”

A entidade, ainda segundo o autor, serve como um vilão muito conveniente para os jovens que estão protestando contra a corrupção. McGrath lembra, então, que Ricardo Teixeira se envolveu em escândalos de corrupção e José Maria Marín foi flagrado pegando uma medalha na premiação da Copa São Paulo em 2012.

Ao longo da matéria, o autor cita casos recentes de violências nos estádios provocados por torcidas organizadas e aponta que muitas delas recebem dinheiro dos clubes para ir aos jogos.

Boa parte do texto é dedicada à história do Corinthians e à sua principal torcida, a Gaviões da Fiel. O jornalista fala sobre o jejum de 23 anos, a democracia corintiana e entrevista o capitão Paulo André, aproveitando para citar a criação do movimento para pedir mudanças no calendário do futebol Bom Senso F.C. O nome do grupo, segundo McGrath, foi uma criação do publicitário Washington Olivetto.

World Cup: Rio favelas being ‘socially cleansed’ in runup to sporting events (The Guardian)

Slum dwellers say thousands forced out of their homes to make way for building projects for tournament and 2016 Olympics

 and  in Rio de Janeiro

The Guardian, Thursday 5 December 2013 17.58 GMT

Boys play football in the Borel favela

Boys playing football in the Borel favela in Rio de Janeira, which will host seven World Cup games followed by the Olympics in 2016. Photograph: Buda Mendes/Getty

The World Cup and the Olympics are being used as a pretext for “social cleansing” as tens of thousands of Rio slum dwellers are driven out to the city periphery, favela residents say.

While millions of eyes turn to north-eastern Brazil for the World Cup draw on Friday, poor communities in Rio de Janeiro are still struggling to be heard as they fight against evictions they say are related to the city’s mega sporting events.

Next year, Rio will host seven games, including the final, followed in 2016 by the Olympics. The city’s mayor, Eduardo Paes, describes this as an opportunity for the city to modernise and create a legacy for future generations. But many of those on the frontline of change feel they are the victims of social cleansing.

At least 19,000 families have been moved to make way for roads, renovated stadiums, an athletes’ village, an ambitious redevelopment of the port area and other projects that have been launched or accelerated to prepare the city for the world’s two biggest sporting events.

“The authorities wouldn’t even enter our community in the past and there was no mention of moving us, but then Brazil won the right to host the World Cup and everything changed,” Maria do Socorro told a hearing in the city council building this week. Socorro’s home of 40 years in the Indiana favela has been marked for demolition.

Countless communities are affected. Among the best known are Vila Autódromo, which will be the site of the main Olympic stadium and athletes’ village; Providência, which is close to the port redevelopment and Indiana, which is about 10 minutes’ drive from the newly refurbished Maracanã stadium.

As was the case in Beijing, London and South Africa before their mega events, the government says such programmes are necessary to modernise the city. Numerous relocations have been carried out in the past as Rio has evolved, but politicians and campaigners say the forthcoming sporting events are driving the process forward at an unprecedented rate, and often in violation of the law. “The government is obliged to publicise preliminary studies, listen to the views of affected communities and offer alternative housing close to their old homes, but the Rio municipality has not complied with any of these laws,” said Renato Cinco, a council member for the leftwing PSOL party.

“People are being moved more than 40km [25 miles] from their homes with very little prior notice and no compensation.”

Civil society groups say the relocations are motivated by surging land values. As new infrastructure is put in place for the World Cup and Olympics, property prices rise in the surrounding areas.

Maracanã stadium

The revamped Maracanã stadium, which is 10 minutes’ drive from the Indiana favela. Photograph: Owen Humphreys/PA

“There is a process of gentrification taking place in the whole city that is connected to the sports events and how the government sees the city: it is no longer a place for residents, but as a business to sell to foreign investors. That’s what the World Cup is about,” said Renata Neder of Amnesty.

“There have been waves of evictions in the past, but this latest one that began after Rio was chosen to host the mega events may be the biggest one yet in terms of numbers.

“The authorities insist that due process has been followed and no residents have been forcibly relocated. The Rio 2016 chief operating officer, Leo Gryner, said the high-profile case of Vila Autódromo showed how far the government was willing to go to accommodate residents.

“In Vila Autódromo the mayor said he would move people to a new place and build nice housing projects for people to move to a new area. People started protesting, saying you couldn’t evict people because of the Olympics. So after some time, the city admitted they should not have forced them to go. They talked to each one of the people living in that area, roughly half said they wanted to move and the other half wanted to stay,” he said.

“Then when they started to see the project going up they realised it was very nice and so they came here to demonstrate and demand to be moved to the new housing! The city talked to everyone.” This is refuted by residents.

That is disputed by residents. And in less prominent cases, residents complain of being harassed by officials and engineers who tell them their homes are not safe. In some cases, this is true. Thousands have died over the years in the floods and landslides that affect many river and hillside favelas during the annual rainy season.

But a visit to the Indiana favela, which sits next to the river Maracanã, suggested the genuine threat to a handful of homes may be being used to justify the clearance of swaths of the community.

Several houses, including two wooden shacks, sat below the flood line and looked too poorly built to withstand a deluge. But the majority of homes marked for demolition – including several that had already been destroyed – were on seemingly firm concrete foundations several metres above the flood line.

“It is true that there are risks from the river, but only in certain places. The problem is that the government is arbitrarily trying to move everyone, even those who are not at risk,” said Ines Ferreira de Abril, a local health worker.”

Many people have already moved out under the relentless pressure from the government. They are going house by house and ultimately, they want to get rid of all of us because this land is very valuable now. They want us out of the way before the big events.”

• This article was amended on 6 December 2013 to clarify that Leo Gryner’s comments about Vila Autódromo are disputed by residents. This article was further amended on 11 December 2013 to correct Renato Cinco’s name, from Renata Silva as the original said.

Brazil worried about stadium gentrification at World Cup (Reuters)

Brazil World Cup

Aerial view shows the new rooftop of the Maracana Stadium, which is undergoing renovations.

Felipe Dana/AP

TURIN — The Brazilian government is worried ordinary fans could be priced out of the country’s modernized stadiums in an unwanted legacy from hosting the 2014 World Cup.

Brazil is building two brand new stadiums and remodeling another 10 which will leave the country with a glut of all-seater, state-of-the-art arenas once next year’s tournament is finished.

It will be a new experience for many Brazilian fans who for years have had to put up with dilapidated arenas, dubious catering and overflowing toilets.

The worry is that many of those who provided the throbbing atmosphere at top matches will no longer be able to afford to go to games as administrators look to gentrify the soccer-going public to increase income.

“To have socially exclusive stadiums as a result of the World Cup investments is not the legacy we want,” deputy sports minister Luis Fernandes told Reuters in an interview.

“The government is very concerned with this issue and it has to be addressed very seriously. I think we could have a gentrification of the stadiums.

“Some stadium administrators are quite explicit in saying that, to be economically feasible, they would have to shift the type of attendance at games,” he added.

“It would change from one where what predominates is the so-called D and E class, to one where there will be a heavy predominance of what they call class A and B spectators who will not only buy the tickets but will also consume in the stadium.

“But if you want to shift the social origin of the spectators so you can have people that can afford to buy other merchandise and food besides tickets, that could be a negative side effect.”

Until recently, there has been almost nothing to buy inside Brazilian stadiums apart from rudimentary fast food and soft drinks. Supporters often prefer to buy counterfeit merchandise from unlicensed street vendors, known as camelos, in front of the stadium.

Nine of Brazil’s 12 World Cup stadiums are owned by the governments of the respective states and will be handed over to private administrators who will hope to make money from selling merchandise inside.

“Football had and has a very central role in building national identity in Brazil,” added Fernandes. “So we are very concerned with that aspect and will be dealing with it in terms of national and state legislation.”

A similar phenomenon has already taken place in England where stadiums have improved vastly over the past 20 years, but working-class fans have been priced out and replaced by middle-class ones.

However, while the shift in England, was built on the back of growing popularity for football, attendances at many Brazilian games are shrinking with an average of 13,000 for last year’s national championship first division.

Fans of Cruzeiro have already noticed the difference. Cheapest tickets for some of the team’s matches have cost 60 Reais ($29.87) since the re-opening of Belo Horizonte’s Mineirao stadium.

Meanwhile, cheapest tickets for the re-opening the Castelao stadium in Fortaleza cost 50 Reais for a double bill of matches in the local state championship, more than at many European first division clubs.

Fernandes pointed out that soccer had such a strong influence in Brazil that memories of the 1950 tournament, which the country hosted but the team lost to Uruguay in the deciding match, were still dragged up.

“It has deep historical, roots,” he said, explaining that Brazilians suffered from what writer Nelson Rodrigues described as “the stray dog complex”.

“Brazilians suffered an inferiority complex and when we lost that match against Uruguay, it reinforced that,” he said. “We were the stray dogs and the others were the pedigrees.

“People felt condemned to be inferior. Football was the first area which inspired national pride up, where we thought Brazil can do it.”

© 2013 Reuters Limited. All rights reserved.

Read More: http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/soccer/news/20130422/brazil-world-cup-stadium-gentrification/#ixzz2RJKId1TK